3-Fluorophenmetrazine (also known as 3F-Phenmetrazine, PAL-593, and 3-FPM) is a novel stimulant substance of the phenylmorpholine class. 3-FPM is a derivative of phenmetrazine, a once-popular stimulant substance that was clinically used as an anorectic in Europe in the 1950s. It produces its activity by increasing the levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the brain. The synthesis and pharmacology of 3-FPM was first reported in a patent filed in 2011. Reports of human use first surfaced in early 2015 after it appeared for sale on the online research chemical market. Subjective effects include stimulation, enhanced focus and motivation, thought acceleration, and euphoria. Users commonly report that 3-FPM produces classical stimulant effects comparable to those of amphetamine. Many reports describe 3-FPM as having a relatively subtle and controlled stimulant effect which produces less nervousness, insomnia and euphoria than other stimulants, which makes it suitable as a study-aid or productivity-enhancer. A few but significant number of anecdotal reports indicate some people experience serious nervous system reactions to 3-FPM. Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of 3-FPM. Due to the lack of information on its properties, it is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance.
3-Fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) is a synthetic molecule of the amphetamine family. Molecules of the amphetamine class contain a phenethylamine core featuring a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. Amphetamines are alpha-methylated phenethylamines. 3-FPM contains a fluorine atom attached at R3 of the phenyl ring. Additionally, part of its amphetamine skeleton is incorporated into a morpholine ring. At R2 of its chain, an oxygen group is bound — this oxygen group is linked by an ethyl chain to the terminal amine of the amphetamine chain to form a morpholine group. 3-FPM is a fluorinated derivative of phenmetrazine.
3-FPM is a sympathomimetic drug which has classical stimulant effects when consumed. Its mechanism of action appears to function by acting as a releasing agent for dopamine and norepinephrine, increasing their concentrations in the synaptic clefts of neurons in the brain. This accumulation of neurotransmitters results in the experience of euphoric and stimulating effects. Its parent compound, phenmetrazine, was previously marketed as an appetite suppressant in the 60s and 70s but has since been withdrawn from the market due to concerns of abuse and addiction.
3-FPM is for research use – Not for human or veterinary diagnostic or therapeutic use. It is the responsibility of the purchaser to determine suitability for other applications.
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